EFFECT OF A LOAD
When a load device is connected across the secondary winding of a transformer, current
flows through the secondary and the load. The magnetic field produced by the current in
the secondary interacts with the magnetic field produced by the current in the primary.
This interaction results from the mutual inductance between the primary and secondary
windings.

MUTUAL FLUX

The total flux in the core of the transformer is common to both the primary and
secondary windings. It is also the means by which energy is transferred from the primary
winding to the secondary winding. Since this flux links both windings, it is called MUTUAL
FLUX. The inductance which produces this flux is also common to both windings and is
called mutual inductance.

Figure 5-11 shows the flux produced by the currents in the primary and secondary
windings of a transformer when source current is flowing in the primary winding.

Figure 5-11. - Simple transformer indicating primary- and secondary-winding flux
relationship.

When a load resistance is connected to the secondary winding, the voltage induced into
the secondary winding causes current to flow in the secondary winding. This current
produces a flux field about the secondary (shown as broken lines) which is in opposition
to the flux field about the primary (Lenz's law). Thus, the flux about the secondary
cancels some of the flux about the primary. With less flux surrounding the primary, the
counter emf is reduced and more current is drawn from the source. The additional current
in the primary generates more lines of flux, nearly reestablishing the original number of
total flux lines.

TURNS AND CURRENT RATIOS

The number of flux lines developed in a core is proportional to the magnetizing force
(IN AMPERE-TURNS) of the primary and secondary windings.

The ampere-turn (I X N) is a measure of magnetomotive force; it is defined as the
magnetomotive force developed by one ampere of current flowing in a coil of one turn. The
flux which exists in the core of a transformer surrounds both the primary and secondary
windings. Since the flux is the same for both windings, the ampere-turns in both the
primary and secondary windings must be the same.

Therefore:

By dividing both sides of the equation by I_{p}N_{ s}, you obtain:

Notice the equations show the current ratio to be the inverse of the turns ratio and
the voltage ratio. This means, a transformer having less turns in the secondary than in
the primary would step down the voltage, but would step up the current. Example: A
transformer has a 6:1 voltage ratio.

Find the current in the secondary if the current in the primary is 200 milliamperes.

The above example points out that although the voltage across the secondary is
one-sixth the voltage across the primary, the current in the secondary is six times the
current in the primary.

The above equations can be looked at from another point of view.

The expression

<figureeq4">

is called the transformer TURNS RATIO and may be expressed as a single factor.
Remember, the turns ratio indicates the amount by which the transformer increases or
decreases the voltage applied to the primary. For example, if the __secondary__ of a
transformer has two times as many turns as the __primary__, the voltage induced into
the __secondary__ will be __two times__ the voltage across the __primary__. If
the secondary has one-half as many turns as the primary, the voltage across the secondary
will be one-half the voltage across the primary. However, the turns ratio and the current
ratio of a transformer have an inverse relationship. Thus, a 1:2 step-up transformer will
have one-half the current in the secondary as in the primary. A 2:1 step-down transformer
will have twice the current in the secondary as in the primary.

Example: A transformer with a turns ratio of 1:12 has 3 amperes of current in the
secondary. What is the value of current in the primary?

Q.20 A transformer with a turns ratio of 1:3 has what current ratio?

Q.21 A transformer has a turns ratio of 5:1 and a current of 5 amperes flowing in the
secondary. What is the current flowing in the primary? (Assume no losses)